directional control valve hydraulic

Basics Of Directional Control Valves & Functionality

Largely, the essential component of any fluid power system is the Directional Control Valves. Directional control valves, also known as DCV, have one of the most significant parts to play in any hydraulic and pneumatic network. 

The directional control valves approve of every fluid flow (from hydraulic oil, water to air) into many directions from one or other sources. DCV will generally include a spool inside a cylinder which is mechanically or electrically placed. The role of this spool is to prohibit or authorize flow and additionally regulate the fluid cycle.

Type of DCVs (Directional Control Valves)

The directional control valves have various types, through which they fulfill the fluid flow of hydraulic oil, water, or air. Each of them works great in their respective fields. And they are widely used in several industries. Listed below are the other types classified based on the fluid path:

  1. Check Valve
  2. Shuttle Valve
  3. Spool Valve
  • Two-way Valve
  • Threeway Valve
  • Four-Way Valve


  1. Check Valves: This type of directional control valve yuken authorizes fluid progression only in an individual direction. For fluids to stream through the basin, slight pressure is compelled to open the valve seat in a solo direction. The valve cleans when there is a flow through the basin. The diagram for this one is a ball-type check valve.Whenever the flow begins to run opposite to this direction the valve shuts down. The oppression in the opposite direction lifts the ball against the valve seat, locking the path.

  2. Shuttle valve: Shuttle valves allow the flow in two different directions. When the coercion of the flow on one side expands the valve closes off the other path. Shuttle valves are mainly utilized where there are two pumps that are utilized in a manner if one flunks to conserve the outlet pressure the other pump delivers the flow as a backup.
  3. Spool type valve


Spool-type valves can be transferred to two, three, or more routing fluid regions between the several inlet and outlet ports varieties. These are commonly procured for guiding control of actuators because a single valve can only produce breadth, retraction, and neutrality.  There are three other variants of the spool-type valve, which include two-way, three-way, and Four-way valves:


  • Two-way Valves


Two-way valves are one of those spool valves with simple two positions ON/OFF valves. But it is actuated by actuators, as in solenoid actuators, hydraulic actuators, etc. There are plugged and normally opened two-way valves, outer actuation is compelled to do the role change of the valve actuator. A flow orbit is confirmed or shut down when the actuator is changed. These valves are similarly called on-off valves.


  • Three-way valves


Three-way directional control valve yuken has three offshoots and enables two positions of actuation in ON condition. A three-way valve primarily has two plug actuators, each plug legislates the flow in two unique ways. When one of the plugs closes off a node, the other one cleans the other node. This closed valve equalizes the obligation of the actuator closing both the nodes to protect the valve. Three-way directional valves are available for the directory, mechanical, pilot, solenoid actuation.


  • Four-way Valve


The four-way valve or three-position valves got three working positions for the actuators to legislate the flow direction. This directional control valve is utilized to regulate cylinders and fluid motors in both ways hydraulically. These valves are applicable to the goal of actuation, manual, computerized, solenoid, pilot, and pneumatic. A four-way valve will be handed over with two or three directions. You should know the valve suggests only one tank port even though sometimes there are two as it is only doubtful with the function.

Important Things To Contemplate While Buying The Directional Control Valves? 

The hydraulic directional control valves control fluids only, there are still several facets that you have to evaluate while buying the right valve. Starting from:

  • Dynamic Power Limits
  • Static Power Limits
  • Resistance To Flow
  • Switching Time
  • Leakage

These are the fundamental aspects that have to be taken into attention to make sure that you can buy a product that is adequate for your emergencies. For easy usage out of the directional control valve, make sure your valve includes all of the above facets. All these points are substantial factors that can make or break the functionality of a valve. If you genuinely want to protect the absolute level of sustainability and efficiency of the valve, it is crucial to get these facts examined. 

Here are some important questions that we think are important to understand about hydraulic directional control valves and their suitable use on a daily basis. For a clear comprehension, do read it carefully. We hope you’ll find them very helpful. Hence, look at the questions & quick answers in the next column.

Few Commonly Asked Questions on DCV:

The two main aspects that you need to keep in the head for selecting a directional-control valve are the number of fluid ports it has and the amount of the directional states, or stances that the valve can achieve.
The purpose of the directional control valve Rexroth is that it has the proficiency to either restrict or enact the flow of the fluid that ascertains pressure. Depending on the categories of the directional control valves, the functionality will differ, however, the purpose is connected, which exerts the exertion of pressure.
The check valves are utilized to ratify the free flow of packed air in only one direction and it prevents the flow of condensed air in the opposite direction. Since cheblockves block the reverse flow, they are also recognized as Non-return valves.
An immediate exhaust valve is a traditional shuttle valve. The objective of a primary exhaust valve is to tire out the cylinder air to the atmosphere quickly. It is used with a spring retrieval single working cylinder to enhance the piston velocity of the cylinders.
There are a lot of types of directional control valve Rexroth, but to select the right one for regulating the flow. Look at the aspects below: Pneumatically-actuated globe valves Diaphragm valves Quarter-turn types such as the modified edition of ball and butterfly valves Gate valves Needle valves
The main purpose of the valves positioner is to serve for a: Alter the fail-safe status of the valve Enhance the precision of the valve Alter the definition of the valve Improve transmitter accuracy Abolish cavitation in the valve


There are the basics of the directional control valves. The importance of DCV fabricates in its processes. It enables the progression of the fluid in the piston to protect the balance. Without its existence, there will not be an equilibrium in transmitting the pressure so that the user can utilize it to its ultimate capacity. DCV restrains the flow of the fluid in the piston to fabricate the ingenuity of pressure in the hydraulic cylinder to make the functionality more efficient and smooth.

Directional Control Valves

Much Ado About Directional Control Valves And Its Functions

Without the help of DCV hydraulic directional control valves, it is impossible to get the hydraulic system getting functional. The DCV is what makes it operable. It is with the assistance of the DCV that the two considerably significant portions of the cylinder get charged because the DCV has the strength to authorize and resist the pressure that is needed to help move the piston as the pressure entering the piston assists in establishing an equilibrium in the flowing of the power that lets the user manipulate it according to their desire. 

How Does The Directional Control Valve Hydraulic Work? 

The directional control valve is one of the most crucial elements in the hydraulic cylinders. DCV helps in authorizing the flowing of the liquid to various places which however relies on the sources.  depending on the sources of the pressure from which it has been launched, it could be said that the source could be one or more. Directional control valve Rexroth is positioned inside the cylinder. 

This DCV is put to labor either electrically or mechanically. The decision of either to permit or prohibit the progression of the fluid relies on the DCV which is accumulated with the functionality of the piston. How much fluid is released is the factor that decides how much pressure will be applied by the piston.

Now it depends on the person who is applying the pressure as it could vary differently because their personal need may require a stimulant amount of pressure to be applied. One could have used more pressure, wherein someone else could have the need for a totally different amount of pressure. This is why one needs a hydraulic accumulator. 

This accumulator is the part that wields power. This part of the hydraulic piston improves the efficiency meanwhile furnishing towards creating a smoother, credible procedure to carry out any task. A piston is a depository appliance that carries the power electrically. The piston is set to operate with the help of the hydraulic force. This particular accumulator, which could have two types, vane or piston accumulator, shoves the piston up and down. 

This creates a tension In the hydraulic system that is provided by the  Hydraulic Pumping Unit. The pump and the piston are brought together with functionality with the help of the accumulator and the DCV. Both of the elements continue to work as the accumulator, with the help of the DCV and the fluid exerts pressure so that it can create a balanced projection of power that can be utilized to one’s will. 

The more pressure that is appointed in the piston with the help of the DCV and accumulator, the more weight it can uplift. 

The DCV is the crucial figure of this particular system as the flowing of the liquid relies solely on the functionality of the DCV. This is how the directional control valve functions. 

What Are The Classifications Of Directional Control Valves: 

There are a few types of directional control valves. Each valve has a different function that is made to serve the various purposes of the users. 

  • Check valve: This particular DCV helps in allowing the fluid to flow only in one direction. In order to function this valve, one only needs to create a small amount of pressure that will be let through the inlet system of the valve. Because this valve is one-directional, the flow from the different directions is blocked as the valve shuts down by pressing the ball in the valve. 
  • Shuttle valve: This is a two-directional valve which means fluid can be allowed to flow in both directions. If there is an increase in pressure on either side, the pressure travels down to the other side to balance it out. It has two pumps to maintain the balance and the flowing of the fluid to manipulate the pressure created in the valve. If one pump fails, other pumps will be there to manage the failure. 
  • Spool type valves: The Spool-type valves are generally utilized as they can be disseminated to two, three, or more ways with which the fluid can be sent to various locations using various inlet and outlet ports assortments. This various combination is used for steering as it controls the actuators. The valve has its own functionality as it maintains retraction, neutrality. However, it is differentiated between three other types too. 
    • Two-way valves: it has two positions and two switches. Yes and no switches. There are different types of actuators at work too. They are solenoid actuators, hydraulic actuators, etc. 
    • Three-way valves: like the name suggests, it has three nodes. It has two actuator plugs which maintain the flow of the fluid. One node opens to let the fluid in meanwhile the other closes to maintain the balance. 
    • Four-way valves: it has three positions that are used to function the actuators that help control the flow of the fluid. It is generally used in cylinders and fluid motors. 

What Are The Common Things That You Need To Consider While Buying The Directional Control Valve Yuken? 

The element is very important in the hydraulic cylinder and that is why there are various things that you have to consider to make sure that you have bought the right thing. 

  • The limit of the Dynamic Power
  • The limit of the Static Power
  • The amount of Resistance To Flow
  • The time of the Switching 
  • Leakage

All these points have to be taken into consideration to make sure that you get a performance that is suitable for your needs. If one maintains or checks for each of the points mentioned above then it will become easier to extract as much usage out of the valve as one can. All these points are important factors that can make or break the functionality of the valve. In order to maintain the maximum level of sustainability and the efficiency of the valve, it is important to get these facts checked. 


The two major factors that you need to keep in mind for selecting a directional-control valve are the number of fluid ports it has and the quantity of the directional states, or positions that the valve can achieve.
The purpose of the directional control valve lies in the fact that it has the power to either restrict or allow the flow of the fluid that creates pressure. Depending on the types of the directional control valve used, the functionality will change however the goal is the same, which manipulates the exertion of pressure.
1. Pneumatically-actuated globe valves 2. Diaphragm valves 3. Quarter-turn types such as the modified version of ball and butterfly valves.


The importance of DCV lies in its functions. It enables the flow of the fluid in the piston to maintain the balance. Without it, there will not be a balance in circulating the pressure so that the user can use it to its maximum potential. DCV controls the flow of the fluid in the piston to manipulate the creation of pressure in the hydraulic cylinder to make the functionality more efficient and smooth.