Everything About Directional Control Valves & Its Work

The most basic components of any fluid power system, Directional Control Valves. Today, we are going to discuss what purpose DCV serves, classification, and other things.

Directional control valves (DCVs) have one of the most important parts to play in hydraulic and pneumatic systems. DCV authorizes fluid flow (hydraulic oil, water, or air) into several paths from one or further sources. DCV will commonly contain a spool inside a cylinder which is mechanically or electrically positioned. The position of the spool prohibits or sometimes allows flow, and further controls the fluid flow.

Classification of DCV (Directional Control Valves)

DCVs are not stuck in a single type. These valves have several other types, through which they serve the fluid flow of hydraulic oil, water, or air. Let’ see what other types it has to offer based on the fluid path:

  • Check Valve
  • Shuttle Valve
  • Spool Valve
  • Two-way Valve
  • Threeway Valve
  • Four-Way Valve

Check Valves

This type of Directional Control Valves permits fluid flow only in a single direction. For fluids to flow through the inlet, a tiny pressure is required to unlock the valve seat in a single direction. The valve clears when there is a flow through the inlet/basin. The figure for this one is a ball-type check valve.

Whenever the flow starts to run opposite to this direction the valve shuts. The coercion in the opposite direction thrusts the ball against the valve seat, hence closing the path.

Shuttle valve

The second is the shuttle valve, this allows the flow in two varied directions. When the pressure of the flow on one side improves the valve shuts the other corridor. The closing and opening ailment for both directions is exemplified in the above figure.

Shuttle valves are generally utilized where there are two pumps that are used in a means if one flunks to maintain the outlet pressure the other pump provides the flow as a backup.

Spool type valve

Spool-type valves are naturally used as they can be transported to two, three, or more routing fluid areas between the various inlet and outlet ports assortments. These are generally obtained for navigating control of actuators because an individual valve can only generate breadth, retraction, and neutrality. 

Now, there are three other variants of the spool-type valve, which include two-way, three-way, and Four-way valves:

Two-way Valves

Two-way valves are one of those spool valves with easy two positions ON/OFF valves. But it is actuated by actuators as in solenoid actuators, hydraulic actuators, etc.

There are generally sealed and normally opened two-way valves, outer actuation is required to do the role change of the valve actuator. A flow route is ascertained or shut down when the actuator is shifted. These valves are similarly called on-off valves.

Three-way valves

Three-way valves have three nodes and allow two positions of actuation in ON condition. A three-way valve mainly has two plug actuators, each plug regulates the flow in two unique ways. When one of the plugs shuts a node, the other one clears the other node.

This naturally closed valve counteracts the responsibility of the actuator closing both the nodes to secure the valve. Three-way directional valves are accessible for the directory, mechanical, pilot, solenoid actuation.

Four-way Valve

The last category of DCVs. The four-way valve or three-position valves which got three functioning positions for the actuators to regulate the flow direction.


This yuken directional control valve is normally utilized to govern cylinders and fluid motors in both ways hydraulically. These valves are accessible with the intention of actuation, manual, computerized, solenoid, pilot, and pneumatic. A four-way valve will be handed over with two or three directions. One should know the valve indicates only one tank port even though sometimes there maybe two as it is only uptight with the function.

Three-position, four-way DCV have various assortments of middle configurations. The civil varieties are the open center, closed center, floating center, and regenerative center with open & locked.

Common Things To Consider While Buying The Directional Control Valves? 

As you already know that Directional Control Valve hydraulic fluids only, there are still various facets that you have to consider while buying the right valve.

  • Dynamic Power Limits
  • Static Power Limits
  • Resistance To Flow
  • Switching Time
  • Leakage

These are the main things that have to be taken into contemplation to make sure that you can get a product that is sufficient for your necessities. If any of the above fails to maintain or checks for each of the points mentioned above, then it will be a problem. For easy usage out of the yuken directional control valve, make sure your valve contains all of the above aspects. All these points are significant characteristics that can make or break the functionality of the valve. If you truly want to maintain the absolute level of sustainability and efficiency of the valve, it is essential to get these facts tested. 

Here are a few important questions that are often asked by people to understand what kind of Directional Control Valve hydraulic are appropriate to use on a daily basis. Look at the questions & brief answers in the upcoming section.

Few Commonly Asked Questions on DCV:

The two main facets that you require to keep in mind for electing a directional-control valve are the number of fluid ports it has and the amount of the directional states, or positions that the valve can attain.
The goal of the Rexroth directional valve is that it has the ability to either restrict or authorize the flow of the fluid that establishes pressure. Relying on the classifications of the directional control valve utilized, the functionality will change nonetheless the purpose is similar, which wields the exertion of pressure.
The check valves are utilized to authorize the free flow of packed air in only one direction and it precludes the flow of condensed air on the contrary direction. Since cheblockves block the lapse flow, they are also recognized as Non-return valves.
A rapid exhaust valve is a conventional shuttle valve. The purpose of a sudden exhaust valve is to exhaust the cylinder air to the atmosphere promptly. It is utilized with a spring retrieval single acting cylinder to improve the piston velocity of the cylinders.
There are plenty of types of Rexroth directional control valve, but to choose the right one for controlling the flow. Look at the aspects below: Pneumatically-actuated globe valves Diaphragm valves Quarter-turn types such as the modified edition of ball and butterfly valves Gate valves Needle valves


This is everything you need to know about Directional Control Valves. The significance of DCV lies in its processes. It facilitates the flow of the fluid in the piston to protect the balance. Without its presence, there will not be a balance in disseminating the pressure so that the user can utilize it to its ultimate potential. DCV regulates the flow of the fluid in the piston to falsify the invention of pressure in the hydraulic cylinder to make the functionality more productive and steady.